Dr. Richard Kirby
This address was originally delivered in January 1994, London, England, at the request of the UK Sibelius Society. This essay represents one approach to the future of spirituality through music, reflecting on Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)--the premier Finnish composer.
- Introduction: the music of the future and Sibelius
- Sibelius: from Finland to int'l significance
- The philosophy of music
- Stages in Sibelius's creative expression
- The person of Sibelius and his music
- The spiritual development of Sibelius
- The musical 'voice' of Sibelius: the dark vision
- The integrity of Sibelius
- Music and the future of world culture
- Sibelius and the music of the future
- Select Bibliography
1. Introduction: The Music of the Future and Sibelius
What kind of music will we have in the future? That depends on what we choose! Philosophers of the modern period, from Schopenhauer to contemporary Buddhists, from Jean-Paul Sartre to post-modernists, have drawn our attention to the significance of human freedom and choice. What we want is, in the end, what we get. But choice is to be built upon values clarification, and this is the value of criticism, analysis, aesthetics, which also helps us to discover, to understand, and to refine the theory of art within which we are working. Future music will be an outcropping of future theories of music just as future societies will be the result of future theories of society. And the study of the future is not an idle exercise in speculation, but an essential instrument for the critical assessment of the present. It is an occasion for the expansion of consciousness, and a part of art itself in Matthew Arnold's sense of the 'Criticism of Life'. The study of the future crystallizes and focuses hope and identifies dangers. And today we speak of our hope for future music of the 'absolute' kind.
The music of the future will be a product of new technologies just as surely as the symphony was the result of new instruments. But it will also be, potentially, the result of new refinements and even new discoveries in aesthetic sensitivities, musical sensitivities in the broadest sense. And music cannot be separated either from its environing society or from the philosophic life in general. In addition to being an artistic phenomenon, music is a social fact, a scientific event, and a philosophical experiment.
The music of the future will partly be based on the needs which society declares, the appetites for culture which it reveals, the resources which it places at the disposal of composers old and new, young and old. The future is coming to us all the time, and organizations such as UNESCO and the World Future Society exist to clarify cultural options. They ask us to consider that for which we stand in, for example music. So to consider the possible, the probable and the preferable possibilities for the music of the future is a practical and valuable exercise of the disciplined, informed imagination. But it has always been the case that the search for the way forward in any field of human activity has been the search for trustworthy guides, and it is this which leads us to Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (1865-1957).
It was in the 1930s that Constant Lambert, In his landmark book Music Ho! concluded his essay in the philosophy and criticism of contemporary serious music with the section headed: Sibelius and the Music of the Future For him, the music of Sibelius represented or showed the way forward. That is still the case! But it is up to us to show how and why this prophetic insight is just as true today.
2. Sibelius. From 'Finland's Greatest Composer' to a Composer of International Significance
The national, Finnish significance of Sibelius has long been known, appreciated and understood; but today we speak of his international and transnational, and global significance. We will test the hypothesis that Sibelius deserves serious consideration as being not merely Finland's greatest composer but, in a certain highly specific sense, a figure of international significance in the story of symphonic music: perhaps the standard-bearer still of 'absolute music'.
This may call for some really fresh thinking in what we must call the philosophy of music, rather than musical aesthetics (with which it overlaps), and this amounts to what T.S. Kuhn called a new 'paradigm' in his study of epochs of scientific thought and their interstitial or mediating 'revolutions'. But today we speak of 'revolution' in musical philosophy.
Here we can be guided by remarks attributed to Sibelius himself in an interview in 1931, in which he extolled symphonic music in connection with the quest for 'higher absolute music', which, incidentally, was characterized by great complexity and subtlety. Mikko Heinio, writing of Sibelius, Finland and the Symphonic Idea, elucidates this interview with the following comments: '...we see coming out all the concepts and beliefs that have subsequently been linked to the symphonic idea in this country: 1) that the symphonic form represents the acme of composition, 2) that it is closely allied to so-called absolute music, which is more worthy than so-called program music, and 3) that it is based on a certain way of thinking that is immortal and somehow transcends history...'(1990, p.l2).
We do not lack for very recent witnesses to Sibelius's international significance in symphonic thought. Paul Driver, writing of [classical] 'Music for our time' in London's Sunday Times in early 1994, declared that 'Peter Maxwell Davies has been writing a series of impressive symphonies rooted in his experience of that most purely and abstractly symphonic of great 20th century composers, Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)'. It is Paul Driver's view that Peter Maxwell Davies has 'fulfilled a prophecy of composer-critic Constant Lambert in Music Ho!, his survey of music between the wars. Cautioning even then against mere pursuit of "the new This or the new That", he suggests that "the music of the future... must inevitably be directed towards a new angle of vision rather than to the exploitation of a new vocabulary," and that the example of a solitary genius like Sibelius will be of decisive importance. The rigorous symphonic thinking of a Sibelius... has persisted against plenty of ideological opposition throughout this century, and may well prove to be the path to the future.'
3. The Philosophy of Music
No consideration of the future of music can proceed rigorously without a realization of the role of theories of music, often unconscious, and their place in the generation of actual works and performances of music.
The theory of music or, to use the wider term, the philosophy of music, is a subject of surprising antiquity. Within the historical period we have the Orphic tradition of Pythagoras from the ancient Egyptian and Greek civilizations, and their development within Platonism; and the culture of India has long been concerned to enunciate a science of sound. Music has been linked with cosmology through such Pythagorean topics as the 'music of the spheres'--a 'theme' which has come right down to the present century where it has found a hospitable reception in the minds of composers such as Gustav Holst; music has been considered an agent of healing as it was among the Hebrews three thousand years ago when David played his soothing melodies to the anguished brain of King Saul. And there have been more general theories of the place of music in human affairs.
Within our English history, there is a particularly rich vein of thought dealing with the place of music within the broadest conceptions of culture and the relationship between Man and the Cosmos. Thus, E.M.W. Tillyard, writing of the Elizabethan World Picture in his splendid little book of that name, assigns to music an unexpectedly high place: 'Ever since the Greek philosophers creation had been figured as an act of music.' (p. 123). It was logical to consider man himself, as part of the creation, as being in some sense the product of music and indeed a musical being in the deepest sense. Dryden in 1687 wrote of 'The diapason closing full in men,' end two hundred and fifty years later the philosopher-ethicist Olaf Stapledon, writing under the influence of the new astronomical discoveries, had concluded that 'Man himself... is music, a brave theme that makes music also of its vast accompanying matrix of storms and stars' (Stapledon, 1930, p.32 Penguin edition). This relationship between creation and music was considered to be dynamic, not merely past. The created universe was itself in a state of music, one perpetual dance, the cosmic dance. Therefore future music will include new music, new creation.
However, Tillyard brings out something extra, which we have perhaps forgotten but of which we can be reminded by Sibelius and parts of the Kalevala such as the Vainamoinen passages: it is that this cosmic dance, this universe-music idea, implies a great harmony between the constitution of the polls and the content of music. It would be an oversimplification to say that this means that music has a profound bearing on civilization, as a creative force bearing the highest values, for it is greater than that: it is that new music can be a herald of new civilization, and that the noblest of music is in itself ethically innovative. This was Sibelius's insight when he spoke of his desire to write music that is forever right. This was stated as follows in Christopher Nupen's television documentary of his life: 'he strove to express what is ultimately and forever right, and his real concern is with the essential mysteries of life and death'. Sibelius succeeded in this ambition, thus producing truly great, transcendent art; and though his music requires a measure of understanding and a gesture of commitment, 'for those who are willing to make that effort his music offers rewards on the level of the greatest masters of Western music'. Christopher Nupen Film on Sibelius).
4. Stages in Sibelius's Creative Expression
Like many composers, Sibelius is considered by his commentators to have passed through three stages in his musical development. We shall not lack for guides in explicating these stages-Professor Arnold Whittall, for example, appears to situate Sibelius at the end of Romantic Music, thus causing us to consider the essence of Romanticism, but our concern today is not simply to think in the narrow musicological sense of these stages, but of their much wider cultural significance.
Thus, following Cecil Gray, we can speak of Sibelius as exhibiting three distinct phases or personalities: the first being the romantic and national; the second, the eclectic and cosmopolitan; and the third the classic and universal. Cecil Gray considered that the first stage is primarily characterized by symphonic poems and choral works based upon, or in some way related to, episodes in the Kalevala or Finnish mythology in general. The last stage consisted primarily of the symphonies; the intermediate stage was characterized by 'miscellaneous compositions of every kind' (Gray, pp.l79-80). There are, Gray considers, exceptions to this general classification, but on the whole he believes that the romantic national compositions preponderate in the first period of his creative activity, the cosmopolitan and eclectic works in the second, and the symphonies in the third. Interestingly, Gray partners each of these stages in this developmental sequence with three definite phases in the composer's life: the first during which he resided principally in Helsinki and became a national figure; the second in which he traveled extensively abroad and attained a European reputation; and the third coinciding with the period of seclusion in Jarvenpaa. (Gray, pp.179-80).
However, we are now standing on the shoulders of Cecil Gray and others, and can build upon his scholarship and insights. For our concern today is, to repeat, not simply to think in the narrow musicological sense of these stages, but of their much wider cultural significance. Thus we can speak of Sibelius as
(a) The hero of Finland-and here we consider the musical achievement of Sibelius as patriot-nationalist: the definition of Finnishness.
(b) The hero of music-that is, particularly the symphony: and here we speak therefore of the international significance of Sibelius: his role in the definition of absolute music.
(c) The hero of consciousness, that is of humanity, of culture: the spiritual achievement of Sibelius as leader of humanity: the definition of humanness/personhood. It is perhaps interesting here to recall the recollection of Raymond Bantock, the second son of Sir Granville Bantock, that lean Sibelius was the 'greatest man I ever met'.
5. The Person of Sibelius and His Music
In speaking of 'the hero', we are not elevating Sibelius to a childishly unrecognizable position, nor disregarding his humanness, his 'warts', his failures, his well-known and well-documented 'human weaknesses', his silence from Jarvenpaa; rather, we are situating our reflections within a cultural tradition made well-known by Joseph Campbell in such works as The Hero with a Thousand Faces. In a certain, very exact sense, today's paradigm of musical inquiry is the deliberate creation of a myth of Sibelius, in a very exact, post-Jungian sense: a 'true myth' in the sense of Olaf Stapledon in his epic study of the future: Last and First Men.Santeri Levas, the secretary of Sibelius for over two decades, has some valuable remarks to make in this connection. In his book Sibelius-A PersonaI Portrait (1972), in the Epilogue: The Place of Sibelius in the history of music, he asserts the valuable insight, which touches upon Sibelius as a leader of human consciousness, that the development of Sibelius the composer went hand in hand with his development as a person (p.133). It is appropriate that this should have led Sibelius to move from nationalistic music to the composition of what Levas, among others, calls absolute music-the music, perhaps, of the absolute: a new horizon in the philosophy, or perhaps the theology of music.
In explaining this theory of Sibelius's creative life, Levas considers the idea that Sibelius had let himself be guided by purely external factors, had become sensitive to critics, conditioned himself after what they said, and had taken external factors in general into consideration in regard to his works. Levas, by contrast, proposes that 'to a greater extent than many other composers of distinction Sibelius was dependent on his own inner life. While Mendelssohn and Chopin, for example, not to speak of Haydn and Mozart, in spite of all individuality, held themselves free in relation to the creative process, and to a certain degree stood "outside" it, the music of Sibelius was bound fast to his inner experiences' (p.133). With advancing age 'deeper matters began to concern the composer than works of purely national character, and this found expression in absolute music' (ibid.). But Sibelius was 'the most subjective, the most personal of all Romantics. He lived his music' (p.134). But what was this music?
Levas considers that however different his works from different periods they all have 'the unmistakable Sibelius quality'. This is usually taken to be something 'very Finnish'-not only by Finns but also by foreigners. What is this 'Sibelius-Finnish quality' in the music of Sibelius? Levas suggests that this 'general quality was the expression of a strong spiritual experience, and that this lasted throughout life. The connection with the natural beauty of his country was rooted deep in Sibelius's feelings and became almost like a religion. It sounded out in all the music he wrote' (p.134).
It is interesting to follow Levas's insight, too, that although the influence of Sibelius may be discerned in some composers, not all of whom are Finnish, he never collected a group of disciples around him, and nothing like a school- as for example in the case of Schoenberg-ever emerged. In Levas's view, Sibelius was 'much too personal, much too individual and exclusive for that" (p.134). In the history of music, according to this perception, he was an 'independent figure, a lone wolf, who trod his own paths in the broad woodlands,' says Levas (pp.134-5). But if we are to speak of the music of the future, we should consider that while Sibelius may have had no musical school, he may be the progenitor of a philosophical or cultural school; especially, perhaps, if we think of him as having been a hundred years ahead of his time. No wonder Constant Lambert spoke of Sibelius and the music of the future.
6. The Spiritual Development of Sibelius
The musical achievements of Sibelius are somehow inseparable from his human ones. Thus the American critic Olin Downes wrote, thinking mainly of the Seventh Symphony, 'Here a form was attained through which the flow of the composer's ideas were set free rather than confined. There are no words to describe this freedom, this powerful unity, this absolute consistency, this irresistible mastery.' (Levas, p. xxii).
Here it would appear that Sibelius's consciousness, or creative growth, had entered that realm of freedom and moral imagination which corresponds in music to the contemplative prayer which is the goal of the monk in such schools of religion as Thomas Merton. For atheists, agnostics and secularists the corresponding freedom can be charted in many artists such as Shakespeare and, perhaps, Nicholas Roerich, Rembrandt and so on. Each of us will have his or her own favorites as exemplars of freedom of thought, the fulfillment of spiritual development. J.W.N. Sullivan spoke of Beethoven's Spiritual Development in his book of that name; and we are followers in Sullivan's brave and pioneering inter-disciplinary footsteps.
This is no idle comparison: for here, in thinking of the achievement of Sibelius as a leader of human consciousness, in thinking of his spiritual development as J.W.N. Sullivan had spoken of Beethoven's Spiritual Development, we move into that high realm of discourse which is like the stratosphere of human culture, where all subjects meet under the lofty canopy of philosophy, or theology, or the highest conception of human, cosmic and transcendental being.
The music of Sibelius as the music of the future bequeaths to us a moral, ascetical achievement that shows the role of music as a spiritual path and presents the benchmark against which the music of the future can be judged for its integrity and wholeness.
To put this point from a slightly different direction, the music of Sibelius provides for us a truly great resource for the understanding of the all-too-rarely considered topic of the nature of true inspiration in relation to the future of composing. For I must repeat the key-note of this lecture: Sibelius himself sought not to write what is successful, nor even what is true, but what is eternally and forever right.
This is an interesting non-dualistic approach to the ancient question of whether the right and the good can be separated. In musical terms, this touches upon the question of whether an artist should serve anything other than his or her own conscience, whether true musical art can be rigorously and necessarily separated from, for example, social ideals.
This is a point that requires us to return to the philosophy of music, this time in the company of a distinguished teacher, G. Lowes Dickinson. In his celebrated book, The Greek View of Life, he helps us to trace a line from Sibelius and his musical ambition, 'to depict what is eternally and forever right', back to Plato, whose non-dualistic foundations of ethics, whose integral connection of music and morality/moral growth, whose moral ideals remain of interest today and have a continued bearing on the music of tomorrow.
According to Lowes Dickinson (p.219), music was the 'center of Greek education', and its moral character a matter of primary importance. That moral character should be attributed to the influence of music is an illustration of the way in which the ancient Greeks identified the ethical and the aesthetic: an exact parallel to Sibelius's ambition. Music has the power to form character, said the Greeks, and Sibelius offers to us a conception of character for future humanity. He is therefore as much concerned with future humanity as with future music.
For pure music, to the Greeks, had a distinct and definite ethical bearing. We must of course remember that what they called 'music' was in fact an intimate union of melody, verse and dance. But they really felt no such dualistic separation of the two topics as we define them. An ethical state of mind was also a musical one, for virtue was a harmony of the soul; and ethical judgements were, at root, aesthetic. The 'good' end the 'beautiful' were one and the same thing: this is the essence of the Greek and therefore the ancient civilizations' classical ideal. It is the essence of classicism. The value for us of Sibelius is that he harmonized the classical and the romantic, while capturing something which transcends both, which Constant Lambert could only allude to as the 'music of the future'. Sibelius gives to us a (non-systematic) spirituality for future absolute music.
When we speak, however, of Sibelius and the music of the future, it is not that Sibelius is to be regarded as the last word, (or note!) in his field: rather, as the first! He was the pioneer in a school of consciousness, and of integrity. He is a teacher of the synthesis of form and content, within the realm of absolute music, and can teach us likewise to harmonize our ethical and intellectual energies.
7. The Musical 'Voice' of Sibelius: the Dark Vision
But it is necessary to build our theoretical superstructure on the firm foundations of close studies of Sibelius and his actual, particular music. Burnett-James, an insightful Sibelius scholar, can be of help to us here. Burnett James (1983), writing of music of Sibelius, set his explorations within a research framework in which the scholars were asked to explore the sound of each composer as his most distinctive feature.
Burnett James describes Sibelius as a many-sided man. He states that the 'more one tries to pigeon-hole him the more elusive he becomes' (p.142). Apparently something of an artistic monolith, Sibelius is described by Burnett James as 'far more multi-textured than is revealed by a casual or even a conventionally close inspection'.
Burnett James helps us, though, with a particular insight into Sibelius that helps us to understand his achievement as a leader, even a hero, of human consciousness. In terms of contemporary adult developmental psychology [see Freud, Gould in the bibliography to this paper], this would be the insight that Sibelius had properly and integrally assimilated the 'dark side' of life and personality in his own being. This was connected inseparably with his conception of Nature: 'for Sibelius, Nature, hostile and potentially destructive, has taken the place occupied by Fate in the Beethoven and post-Beethoven eras... for the Finn, the dweller in far northern harshness where Nature as often as not strikes to kill, nature is seldom the scene of easeful repose...' (p.142). Perhaps there is some exaggeration here, but it is a point worth making. To be fair, however, it might be worth making the point also that Finland's northern lands could equally be described as a paradise by those who prize the absence of great heat, the scarcity of human beings and the presence of great sylvan beauty. But the question of the spiritual character of Finnish landscape and human geography must await a separate investigation.
Burnett James proposes that in Sibelius the human spirit predominates only 'after the most resistant penetration and the most formidable struggle.' (ibid.) And this, for James, is the special contribution of Sibelius: 'it is Sibelius's insight into the cold ferocity and antagonistic violence of Nature which gives his music its unique sound and its specifically modern significance.'
Burnett James chooses the idiom of depth psychology within which to set his insights about the music of Sibelius: he writes, 'The forest gods of Tapiola, "brooding savage dreams", originate in the Freudian snake pit of the unconscious. The experience of Tapiola is frightening precisely because it unlocks forces the civilized mind prefers either to ignore or to explain away. But they can neither be explained away nor ignored. They are the modern form of Fate; they have to be confronted or they will destroy us and our world. They may destroy us in any case; but at least if they are unleashed they can be identified and perhaps tamed. This lies at the center of the music of Sibelius, its sound and its existential relevance. If it had not been for those forest gods, those brooding figures of the collective unconscious, Sibelius might have become a comparatively genial composer... as genial as Brahms. But it did not work out that way: he saw deeper and could not evade what he saw. The savage dream haunted him. The sound and texture of his orchestra cannot in the end relent' (p.145).
In terms of the sound of Sibelius, Burnett James believes that 'it was analysis of and confrontation with the hostile forces of nature that was central.' He proposes that the 'sense of the human spirit in a hostile waste of desolation becomes the final resolution of Tapiola. The sound of his orchestra is hard, dense, unyielding; the sonic equivalent at its most characteristic of the texture of granite' (pp 144-45).
While we should respect this interesting analysis, it is possible to regard the music of Tapiola in a less apocalyptic way and to see its true maturity, assimilating the dark side of human nature. This is brilliantly brought out in the BBC radio program Land of Heroes, which shows what Burnett James could not -the symbiotic relationship between Man and Nature: "Take me as thy Man, O Forest..."
In another, later one of his books, Sibelius: his Life and Times, Burnett James gives us a slightly more integrated view of his thoughts on Sibelius and his personal development: 'Inwardly his peace was hard won. To reach the serenity of the Sixth and Seventh Symphonies, deceptive though it may be at times, was a comparatively long and arduous road. And Tapiola at the very end of it may suggest that the snakes in the human mind and psyche are scotched not killed: the repose that he did win was certainly not of the kind that marks an early defeat. Taking his life and work as a whole, Jean Sibelius has to be seen as one who looked into the abyss of the fermenting twentieth century, both musical and non-musical (and not only on Finland), and saw there some disturbing phenomena and alarming specters.
But he did not flinch'-so ends David Burnett-James's book (1989, p.108).
8. The Integrity of Sibelius
In other words, Sibelius was an honest man in the realm of consciousness and culture. Such an achievement of character is so rare, alas, that it means that Sibelius stands almost alone in the quest for musical integrity at the very highest level. In the idiom of J.W.N. Sullivan, whose treatise on Beethoven's Spiritual Development, mentioned earlier, is such a valuable pioneering document, Sibelius's spiritual development is his gift from the 20th century to the 21st: he remains the Lighthouse, the Beacon, warning composers away from the submerged reefs of luxurious romanticism, the dangers of impersonalism within the world of atonal music, the siren voices of meretricious popular music and the shallowness of a merely retrospective classicism. Like a lonely titan, he stands austerely showing the way forward, the narrow, razor-edge path to total integrity. Cecil Gray explained the integrity of Sibelius in terms such as these: the entire absence of sensationalism, the renunciation of the desire to astonish his contemporaries, the famous decision to offer pure cold water instead of the cocktails of every hue and description (Gray, pp.10-11). In other words, Sibelius personified many-layered integrity in absolute music: that is why he is of enduring significance, and, indeed, is still the avant-garde.
9. Music and the Future of World Culture
In this lecture, I have tried to show that the music of Sibelius is relevant not just to the future of music but also to the future of culture. To put it at its simplest, Sibelius helps us to understand culture. He stands in the tradition of Matthew Arnold and Arnold's attempt to discover the best and truest in civilization and its arts. He shows us some astronomical horizons of culture and music: the music of the spheres in a new sense-which is perhaps why his music is used by the BBC's astronomy program The Sky at Night. Sibelius offers us a philosophy of man, materials for a definition of the human condition, its problems and possibilities.
10. Sibelius and the Music of the Future
When we speak of the music of the future meaning in part new music, we are beginning to lay the foundations of inspiration for composers to work on new compositions, new musical works of art: in our paradigm of musical aesthetics we are drawing on the music of Sibelius to construct a true theory of music in the broadest sense, which will be like a building within which composers and their collaborators (such as librettists) can sit while they create their own new works of musical art.
For what is at stake here is not Sibelius worship but New Music! Of course there is an abundance of new post-Siberian music in a number of countries, but I am proposing a framework of composition, a new community perhaps, within which to set this transcendental inspiration. For, as Arnold Whittall asserts, Sibelius offers us the 'heroic tone' of authentic Romanticism. And like Brahms, Sibelius synthesized the classical and the Romantic, but with infinitely greater depth and insight into the panorama of human experience, good, bad and transcendent.
For the music of Sibelius, the hero of consciousness, follows perhaps in the footsteps of Vainamoinen, the Kalevala's astounding musician-as-hero. In the music of Sibelius we see the infrastructure of a web of superlative cultural values as the basis for a theory of music, that art form which is the leader of culture, absolute music leading to and from the Absolute in some subtle and significant sense, the highest distillation of absolute music yet achieved by the human mind. This is why we can comprehend Sibelius as a leader of international music and not only as the outstanding composer of Finland. This, too, is why Constant Lambert could only look to Sibelius for the music of the future -and so must we. But under his mighty inspiration it is 'new songs' that we will compose: new songs for the world's children, and our own.
Let us begin, for Sibelius is dead, and it is we ourselves who must compose the music of the future. It is new compositions of which we speak. There have been Finnish post-Siberian compositions, and British ones such as those of Vaughan Williams; now we must hope for more thoroughly international post-Sibelian works which will honor his achievement as the mediator between absolute music and internationalism in thought.
Select BibliographyAbraham, Gerald (ed.) Sibelius: A Symposium. London, 1947, 1952.
Driver, Paul. Music for our time. London: Sunday Times, 9th January 1994, section 9, page 26.
Freud, Sigmund. The Future of an Illusion. London: Hogarth Press (Collected works).
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. London: Hogarth Press (Collected works, vol. xxi).
Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. London: Hogarth Press (Collected works).
Gould, Roger. Transformations. Growth and Change in adult Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978.
Gray, Cecil. Sibelius. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.
Heinio, Mikko. 'Sibelius, Finland and the Symphonic Idea', Finnish Music Quarterly, 3-4/90, p.l2.
James, Burnett. The Music of Sibelius. London, 1983.
James, Burnett. Sibelius [The Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers]. London: Omnibus Press, 1987.
Kuhn, T.S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University Press, 1970.
Kirby, Richard, & Brewer, Earl. The Temples of Tomorrow. London: Grey Seal, 1993.
Kirby, W.F. (trans.) Kalevala, The Land of the Heroes (2 vols.). London: J.M.Dent, 1907.
Lambert, Constant. Music Ho! London: Faber & Faber, 1936.
Layton, Robert. Sibelius (2nd ea.) [Master Musicians series] London: Dent, 1985.
Levas, Santeri. Sibelius-A Personal Portrait. London: J.M.Dent, 1972.
Pentikainen, Juha Y. Kalevala Mythology (trans. Ritva Poon). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Rowell, Lewis. Thinking about Music, an introduction to the philosophy of music. Amherst, 1983.
Stapledon, Olaf. Last and First Men. London: Methuen, 1930.
Stapledon, Olaf. Star Maker. London: Methuen, 1937.
Sullivan, J.W.N. Beethoven: His Spiritual Development. London: Allen and Unwin, 1964.
Tawaststjerna, Erik. Sibelius (vol.1). London: Faber & Faber, 1976. (Trans. Robert Layton).
Tillyard, E.M.W. The Elizabethan World Picture. London: Chatto & Windus, 1943.
Whittall, Arnold. Romantic Music: a concise history from Schubert to Sibelius. London: Thames Hudson, ca. 1987.
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